Overview of Lithium battery safety testing- UL 1973
Dec 24, 2021

UL 1973, Batteries for Use in Light Electric Rail (LER) and Stationary Applications (UL 1973), is a safety standard for stationary batteries for energy storage applications that is not specific to any one battery technology or chemistry, and can apply to Li-ion battery ESSs, as well as ESSs using other battery chemistry. The standard includes construction requirements, safety performance tests, and production tests. The Li-ion batteries assessed in the testing described in this report are listed to UL 1973.

UL 1973 contains a series of construction parameters, including requirements for nonmetallic materials, metallic parts resisting corrosion, enclosures, wiring and terminals, electrical spacing and separation of circuits, insulation and protective grounding, protective circuits and controls, cooling/thermal management, electrolyte containment, battery cell construction, and system safety analyses.

UL 1973 also outlines a series of safety performance tests for Energy storage solutions, including electrical tests such as an overcharge test, short circuit test, over-discharge protection test, temperature and operating limits check test, imbalanced charging test, dielectric voltage test, continuity test, failure of cooling/thermal stability system test, and working voltage measurements. In addition, UL 1973 requires testing of electrical components; including a locked-rotor test for low voltage direct current (DC) fans/motors in secondary circuits, input, leakage current, a strain relief test and a push-back relief test.

Mechanical tests are also required by UL 1973, including a vibration test, shock test, and crush test, which only apply to LER applications. Other mechanical tests that apply to all systems include a static force test, impact test, drop impact test, wall mount fixture/handle test, mold stress test, pressure release test, and a start-to-discharge test.

Additional environmental tests are also required by UL 1973, including a thermal cycling test, resistance to moisture test, and a salt fog test.

Of particular relevance to this study, UL 1973 also requires two fire exposure tests: an external fire exposure test and an internal fire exposure test. The purpose of the external fire test is to ensure that an ESS will not explode as a result of being exposed to a hydrocarbon pool/brush fire. In the external test, a fully charged ESS is subjected to a heptane pool fire, or another similar hydrocarbon fuel pool fire, for 20 minutes. The fuel is held in a pan placed 24 inches under the ESS and is sized (in diameter) to be large enough to cover the dimensions of the ESS. After the 20 minute exposure, the ESS is subjected to a hose down in accordance with UL 263, Conduct of Hose Stream Test of the Standard for Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials, to represent the firefighter response that the system may be exposed to during a fire. The ESS must demonstrate that no explosion hazards exist by the observation and measurement of any projectiles that occur during the external fire test.

The internal fire test is meant to demonstrate how the ESS will prevent a single cell failure within the battery system from cascading into a fire and/or explosion. In the internal fire test, the fully charged Energy storage solution is subjected to heating until thermal runaway of one internal battery cell that is centrally located within the ESS. Once the thermal runaway is initiated, the mechanism used to create thermal runaway is shut off or stopped and the ESS is subjected to a one hour observation period. Fire cannot propagate during this observation period or result in an explosion.

*This article is from internet, does not represent the views of this site, if there is any infringement, please contact to delete.

EverExceed has vast experience when it comes to battery solutions, and we are satisfying our partners' and customers’ pain points with the most efficient and precise state of art battery packs consistently. If you have any requirements or any kind of query regarding the battery solutions, feel free to communicate with our dedicated team at any time at
Are you looking for more information about EverExceed's  professional products and solutions?  Our expert team is always here to help. Please fill in the form and our sales representative will contact you shortly. EverExceed | Empower, Energize, Exceed the Energy you Expect forever.
copyright © 2024 EverExceed Industrial Co., Ltd.all rights reserved.
leave a message
welcome to everexceed
If you are interested in our products and want to know more details,please leave a message here,we will reply you as soon as we can.